Antibiotic Resitance

We take antibiotics very often. When we are sick we take them in order to kill our germs and make us well again but sometimes it doesn’t work and we are left sick. This is called anti-biotic recistence.

The reason things like this happen are similar to speciation in animals but it happens a lot more rapidly. A mutation is a more common causes the cells divide rapidly in order to cover a lot of ground but a mutation can occur where it will stay around for a long time and won’t multiply enough to get rid of the illness. Also the cells in your body can get a gene that makes it resistant to the medication/antibiotic. Sometimes doctors might give you the wrong medicine which will virtually do nothing to your illness but it may wake you weaker because it is attacking cells that are fine and you have the side effects of the medication even though it isn’t doing doing anything to your illness.

It is important not to abuse medication because your body will more quickly adapt to the medication meaning that your illness will still be there and you have nothing to fight it with. Critically ill patients are more susceptible to infections and, thus, often require the aid of antimicrobials. The more you give them it can worsen the problem. the increased use of the drug can create a fertile environment for the spread of germs that are resistant to the antibiotic.

I think in developing countries that have a lot of disease it is extremely bad to have any source of resistance to anti-biotics. It is important to use drugs correctly to lessen your chance of more people getting the disease. This would make getting rid of diseases impossible which would mean less people working and the economy would go down.

In Canada we are lucky to have access to so many different types of medicines so if we do become resistant to one we have many others to chose from. In smaller less developed or poorer places like Fiji they may no have this luxury so if an anti biotic doesn’t work their disease can spread and people won’t have the ability to get rid of it.

Remember to always use antibiotics correctly and make sure your doctor gives you the correct prescription. It is important to never self medicate, always use advice from a professional!


The Reefs in Fiji

Biodiversity is the verity of life found on earth. This includes all types of stuff like Eco systems and cultures. We are gonna focus on the ecosystem aspect of biodiversity. In all different Eco systems plants and animals all rely on each other in orther to live. Plants can’t live without the soil and soil won’t be healthy without worms and worms feed birds and on and on and on. In this post I am going to be talking about, more specifically, the biodiversity in coral in the ocean.

A few days ago our class went to plant coral in Fiji. This was a really cool experiance. We got to a snorkel and see all kinds of neat stuff. How it worked in that scoentists tool frasmts of choral and so they could grow a lot of it in labs and they took the fragments and let them grow and made sure they had plenty. After that they go into the ocean and drop them into spaces in the reef where they latch onto other coral and grow.

It is very important to have choral right outside of land between the depths of the ocean and the shore. Choral does so much for us and its important that we make sure we keep having a lot of it and not get rid of choral reefs. Not only do they bring a lot of fish, help feed the fish and make good homes. They also protect the land so less of it is under water and the tide won’t come up too far. Choral also gives us food and helps employ a lot of people. Due to the recent increase of acidity in the ocean because of urbanization, choral reefs have been decreasing. This is very bad and because we need reefs so bad and because of us we are getting rid of them, it is extremely important that we stop polluting oceans and try very hard to replenish the reefs and do what ever we can to make restore them.

Personally based on what we were doing I thought it was a great project and it helped the ecosytm very well and efficiently. One thing that I would change or improve about it is that they should be covering more land and try to do more public awareness of the issue and promote more people around the world helping out.


Prokaryotic organisms

Today were gonna expand our knowledge on cells. Cells are the building blocks of life. All matter is made up of cells, they are tiny little balls of energy that are ALWAYS moving. Basically cells are extremely important for anything to exist or happen on earth!

Now, there are two different types of cells. There is Prokaryotic and Eukaryotics. One of the main differences is that Eukaryotics have a nuclei and the other does not have a true nuclei. Other differences is the DNA in the Eukaryotics cell is made up of chromosomes that are inside the nucleus. The Prokaryotic is round and the chromosomes are not located inside the nucleus because it doesn’t have a nucleus.

Prokaryotes are found in algae and bacteria. Eukaryotics are found in animals and plants such as fungi and flowers. Prokaryotes are usually found In single celled organisms.

Both of these types of cells have similarities. They both copy DNA in a similar way. Also the DNA exists in a similar way. Both of these cells need energy to survive and they also make their own proteins.

Cyanobacteria is also another cell that is mostly present in marine life. These cells are found in plankton and other coral life. They use photosynthesis to get their energy. Cynabacteria are a large part of photosynthetic organisms on earth.



Lactose Enzyme

Today were going to be learning about what being lactose intolerant is all about and how someone society eventually got to the point were people could actually digest milk post early infant stages.

When you are lactose intolerant you cannot digest lactose. This means that you are missing a certain enzyme in your body that enables you to digest lactose. Lactose is a sugar in milk products. Now, earlier in human evolution, EVERYONE was basically lactose intolerant once they stopped depending on their mothers milk in infant years. They lose the enzyme there for making everyone lactose intolerant.

Clearly there is a problem here. Somewhere a long the way something changed because we now almost all have the ability to digest the enzyme even in our adult years. This change is our bodies started most likely around the domestication of cows. We started not only using cows for meat, but also for their milk and to help around the farm. Cows are more sexually active than us and with our help they can produce milk for a long time. Humans started drinking this milk as a way to survive. We needed it because other wise we would die of malnutrition and dehydration. Some people were deformed and could actually digest the enzyme post infanthood. Those people survived and mated with other people who shared this ability. Since everyone else died off or went some place else to look for better resources, a whole group of people became lactose tolerant.

As for cultures and groups of people, everyone went through this change at different times. People in India went through it at a later time than Europeans. This is because Europeans domesticated cows before the Indians. Cows are not a native species to Fiji so many Fijians do not have the ability to digest the enzyme yet because it is still fairly new. People who are Indo-Fijian are more likely to have the enzyme.

The evolution of lactose tolerance is a very good example of natural selection because people who carried the enzyme lived and helped populate others with the same. Lactose tolerance is a MUTATION.



When we visited the university that was about 30 minutes from USP I learned a lot about pesticides and control in farms. I also learned a little bit about pigs and science. It was a really exciting day and I got some awesome pictures.

I am going to be talking about the pesticides used in farms to get rid of bugs and invasive weeds. I found this part of our tour the most interesting.

Many bugs effect the soil and most popular foods on the island. Farmers control the insects, virus’s, weeds and plant pathogens so that they canals growing more efficient and feed more people. Some weeds are good because it controls healthy soil.
Other weeds are invasive species. These weeds take up space and nutriance so other plants become deprived of what they need.
Scientist have invented chemicals to control weeds. All chemicals must go through a long process in order to decide if they are safe or not. Chemicals are dangerous to us, neighboring animals, bugs and the plants we are trying to grow. It is very dangerous to use these chemicals and most farmers use to much which can be harmful for us. Farmers must wear a large suit in order to protect themselves from being harmed from the chemicals.

Cabage insects are one of the most invasive species in Fiji. These insects create holes in the food and harm them or prevent them from growing.
Farmers Use pesticides to kill bugs and keep plant growth in control. Some other bugs that harm plant growth are:
-fruit fly
-rhinoceros beetle
-taro beetle
-stick insect

Many diseases effect the growth of plants and can spread and effect other plants. These must be kept under control so scientist at the university come up with ways to stop the disease and control the health of the plants. Some of these diseases are:
-chili anthracnose disease
-Papya disorder

I learned so much today and it was an awesome experience!




The Elephants and the Birds

There are several species of birds living in the Fiji rain forest. They live among each other but keep to themselves. Suddenly a species 5th started being noticed in the forest. It’s had red wings like the red wing sparrow and it had a blue beak like the black joker. This new species shares many traits with the two birds. This is funny because the bird is actually part of both species. When the birds preform mating dances up high on the branches, female birds are attracted and join the ritual. The two species have very similar mating calls and are awake at similar times so it could have happened that the birds got confused and began breeding with each other. This odd occurrence is what caused the third species to appear in the Forrest.

For many years the gray back elephant has had a short trunk. This is because it lived in an environment where trees were quit short and things were all within reach. A wild forest fire occurred and they lost all their resources. The elephants decided to move to a new habitat. This new habitat had much higher trees that were not within reach of the animals. Some of the species had a slightly longer trunk and were able to get the food. There wasn’t enough to share so animals who could get it lived and the others either left or died. This left only elephants with slightly longer trunks. They could only mate with other elephants that had longer trunks. This made their children also have longer trunks. Through evolution their trunks became longer and longer until eventually their was a distinct difference between the two species. Their were now long trunk elephants who loved in a forest with higher trees and there was also and second species of elephants who lived in a forest with little trees. This is how the two species were created.

Coconut Palm Tree

Coconut Palm Tree

kingdom: plantae
clade: angiosperm
Order: Arecales (Bromhead)
Family: Arecales (Shultz Sch)

A coconut palm tree is a monocot. I know this because it has one singular growth. Also the vanes in the leaves are all parallel. The vascular bundles are scattered and it has fibrous roots.

Palm trees are plants that flower. The flower is the key part of the reproductive system in this plant. The plants reproduce through seeds. Seeds first need to be pollinated. The plants are pollinated by bugs etc. one that is finished they must be transferred away from the plant. This happens through on of two ways. Either they are blown away in the wind or they are transferred by bugs as the pass by the flowers. Once they are transported to a new livable area, the seed is activated with water and grows out of soil or sand. It grows and grows its own flowers and the cycle continues.

Water is sucked up through the roots of the palm tree. Palm tree are usually near water but if not they get water from rain which is later is later absorbed by the roots. The xylem and phloem suck up the water inside the vascular bundles. The phloem is alive so it contracts and pushed up all the water. The xylem is very thin and pushes up the water as it builds up. Finally the water gets to the leaves were is is distributed. Water helps carry all the nutrients throughout the plant. Once the water is no longer needed is evaporates through a process called transpiration.

The palm tree does not really have any predictors, but there are some things that effect the growth or life of the tree. Climate is an important factor because the palm tree survives in a warm hot place all year round. Palm trees are not found in any cold temperatures because it cannot survive in those types of climate. Also alike most other plants diseases can effect the tree. If anything, the main risk to palm tree is us. Human cut down many trees because the provide so many excellent resources. It is important not to clear cut these trees so they (although unlikely) wont go extinct.



Turtle VS Dolphin

The turtle digestive system is a quite simple system similar to that of a humans. There are some differences but mostly similarities. The turtle digestive system starts off pretty simply. There is a hole in their scull were their teeth grind up the food and with saliva and contracting their throat they swallow the food. They eat drink and breath out of this opening. The food then travels down a long tube in their throat called the asaphogus. The esophagus connects the stomach and the mouth. Once the food has traveled down the asaphogus it is put into the stomach. The stomach is a large chamber that holds onto the food as the acids in it break down the food so the other organs can continue to digest them. The stomach turns and contracts in order for all the food to be broken down. One this process is finished the food is sent down to the liver. The liver is the largest organ in the turtles body!! The liver produces bile. Then the gall bladder releases the bile into the other intestines. Then the pancreas produces an enzyme that goes into the small intestines. The small intentine also connects to the stomach and the large intestine. Inside the large intestine things called “vili” absorb the nutrients from the food so the rest of the body can use it as fuel. Then the food travels into the colon. Inside the colon there are many parasites that can be harmful to humans. E-coli and samanela are some of the harmful parasites found in this organ. Finally, the waist exits the turtle through its anus.

The dolphin digestive system is different then the turtles. The dolphin has more than one stomach and they have extremely fast metabolisms so that food can be digested very quickly. The dolphin consumes food through its mouth which travels along the esophagus. The food goes into the four stomach where it can digest at will. This is smart because series dolphins must go without food so this is a good storage unit to help them when they need energy. Next, the food goes into the septic chamber where it turns and is broken down with acids. Then it goes down into the pyloric stomach which is below the last stomach once it is all broken down. In the pyloric splinter all of the pancreatic bile is collected and emptied out into the intestines. Then intestines are similar to that of a turtle and they run the short length of the dolphin and emptied out of the anus. The dolphin can digest its food extremely quickly because of its naturally fast metabolism because it is constantly moving and consuming food. The turtle digest food at a normal speed because it is slower and doesn’t need as much energy also it does not eat as much. These are the main differences between the dolphin and turtle digestive system.

The skeletal system of the dolphin are made up of very flexible bones that are weaker. This happens because there is less gravity in water. The water is very boyent and dolphins spend most of their time floating so their bone structure does not have to be super strong. The spine is one of the most dense parts of the whale because it uses its tail and spine to move around and push through the water. The disks in the spine of its back are very large and close together. This effects the dolphins neck. The neck is very short and thick and this is because of how tight the spine is. The bone structure of the fingers are very different then that of turtles. The dolphin has very long thin fingers so it can take up maximum surface area so the fins can be large. Dolphins only have four finger bones. Last the ribs of the dolphin aren’t really connected very strongly to the spine. This is because when it is diving deep the pressure of the ocean would break the ribs if it were connected. The ribs almost Float in the body. The ribs that are connected have a conjoined bone.

The front limbs of turtles are similar to that of the fins in dolphins. They are both webbed like. There are fingers within the tissue but they look more like a fin. The bones are much less flexible then that of the dolphins mainly because they do not deep sea dive and they have their shell to protect them. The turtles have significantly more defined hind limbs that help them steer in the water. Since turtles spend less time floating their ribs are connected to their spine more similarly to us. Also their spine does not to be as strong because they don’t have to withstand as much pressure as whales.

Monocot VS Dicots

I know that this plant is a monocot because it has parallel vanes running through the flower petals. Also the flower has few petals, almost as if it is one giant petal scaling the edge around the center. This plant is not a dicot because the vanes are not branching out into the different parts of the petals. This plant also does not have for or five petals. This plant only has one growth. Each flower in this area has its own set of systems. This plant also does not have any sort of fruit growing from it or anything other part other then it’s main part, the flower. Although I cannot dissect this plant to find out what it’s stem and root systems look like I can assume it is still a monocot biased on its main characteristics. I can infer that the vascular bundles are scattered and it has fibrous roots. This plant is definitely a monocot!